By the end of this section, you will be able to:
- Distinguish the types of intercellular communication, their importance, mechanisms and effects
- Identify the major organs and tissues of the endocrine system and their location in the body
Communication is a process in which a sender transmits signals to one or more receivers to control and coordinate actions. In the human body, two major organ systems participate in relatively “long distance” communication: the nervous system and the endocrine system. Together, these two systems are primarily responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the body.
Neural and Endocrine Signalling
The nervous system uses two types of intercellular communication—electrical and chemical signalling—either by the direct action of an electrical potential, or in the latter case, through the action of chemical neurotransmitters such as serotonin or noradrenaline. Neurotransmitters act locally and rapidly. When an electrical signal in the form of an action potential arrives at the synaptic terminal, they diffuse across the synaptic cleft (the gap between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron or muscle cell). Once the neurotransmitters interact (bind) with receptors on the receiving (post-synaptic) cell, the receptor stimulation is transduced into a response such as continued electrical signalling or modification of cellular response. The target cell responds within milliseconds of receiving the chemical “message”; this response then ceases very quickly once the neural signalling ends. In this way, neural communication enables body functions that involve quick, brief actions, such as movement, sensation, and cognition. In contrast, the endocrine system uses just one method of communication: chemical signalling. These signals are sent by the endocrine organs, which secrete chemicals—the hormone—into the extracellular fluid. Hormones are transported primarily via the bloodstream throughout the body, where they bind to receptors on target cells, inducing a characteristic response. As a result, endocrine signalling requires more time than neural signalling to prompt a response in target cells, though the precise amount of time varies with different hormones. For example, the hormones released when you are confronted with a dangerous or frightening situation, called the fight-or-flight response, occur by the release of adrenal hormones—adrenaline and noradrenaline—within seconds. In contrast, it may take up to 48 hours for target cells to respond to certain reproductive hormones.
In addition, endocrine signalling is typically less specific than neural signalling. The same hormone may play a role in a variety of different physiological processes depending on the target cells involved, for example, the hormone oxytocin promotes uterine contractions in women in labour and it is also important in breastfeeding and may be involved in the sexual response and in feelings of emotional attachment in both males and females.
In general, the nervous system involves quick responses to rapid changes in the external environment, and the endocrine system is usually slower acting—taking care of the internal environment of the body, maintaining homeostasis, and controlling reproduction (Table 14.1.1). So how does the fight-or-flight response that was mentioned earlier happen so quickly if hormones are usually slower acting? It is because the two systems are connected. It is the fast action of the nervous system in response to the danger in the environment that stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete their hormones. As a result, the nervous system can cause rapid endocrine responses to keep up with sudden changes in both the external and internal environments when necessary.
Table 14.1.1. Endocrine and nervous systems
|Endocrine System||Nervous system|
|Primary chemical signal||Hormones||Neurotransmitters|
|Distance travelled||Long or short||Always short|
|Response time||Fast or slow||Always fast|
|Environment targeted||Internal||Internal and external|
Structures of the Endocrine System
The endocrine system consists of cells, tissues and organs that secrete hormones as a primary or secondary function. The endocrine gland is the major player in this system. The primary function of these ductless glands is to secrete their hormones directly into the surrounding fluid. The interstitial fluid and the blood vessels then transport the hormones throughout the body. The endocrine system includes the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal glands (Figure 14.1.1). Some of these glands have both endocrine and non-endocrine (exocrine) functions, for example, the pancreas contains cells that function in digestion as well as cells that secrete the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood glucose levels. The hypothalamus, thymus, heart, kidneys, stomach, small intestine, liver, skin, female ovaries and male testes are other organs that contain cells with endocrine function. Additionally, adipose tissue has long been known to produce hormones and recent research has shown that even bone tissue has endocrine functions.
The ductless endocrine glands are not to be confused with the body’s exocrine system, whose glands release their secretions through ducts. Examples of exocrine glands include the sebaceous and sweat glands of the skin. As just noted, the pancreas also has an exocrine function: most of its cells secrete pancreatic secretion through the pancreatic and accessory ducts to the lumen of the small intestine.
Other Types of Chemical Signalling
In endocrine signalling, hormones secreted into the extracellular fluid diffuse into the blood or lymph and can then travel great distances throughout the body. In contrast, autocrine signalling takes place within the same cell. An autocrine (auto- = “self”) is a chemical that elicits a response in the same cell that secreted it. Interleukin-1, or IL-1, is a signalling molecule that plays an important role in inflammatory response. The cells that secrete IL-1 have receptors on their cell surface that bind these molecules, resulting in autocrine signalling.
Local intercellular communication is the province of the paracrine, also called a paracrine factor, which is a chemical that induces a response in neighbouring cells. Although paracrines may enter the bloodstream, their concentration is generally too low to elicit a response from distant tissues. A familiar example to those with asthma is histamine, a paracrine that is released by immune cells in the bronchial tree. Histamine causes the smooth muscle cells of the bronchi to constrict, narrowing the airways. Another example is the neurotransmitters of the nervous system, which act only locally within the synaptic cleft.
Endocrinology is a specialty in the field of medicine that focuses on the treatment of endocrine system disorders. Endocrinologists—medical doctors who specialise in this field—are experts in treating diseases associated with hormonal systems, ranging from thyroid disease to diabetes mellitus. Endocrine surgeons treat endocrine disease through the removal, or resection, of the affected endocrine gland.
Patients who are referred to endocrinologists may have signs and symptoms or blood test results that suggest excessive or impaired functioning of an endocrine gland or endocrine cells. The endocrinologist may order additional blood tests to determine whether the patient’s hormonal levels are abnormal, or they may stimulate or suppress the function of the suspect endocrine gland and then have blood taken for analysis. Treatment varies according to the diagnosis. Some endocrine disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, may respond to lifestyle changes such as modest weight loss, adoption of a healthy diet, and regular physical activity. Other disorders may require medication, such as hormone replacement, and routine monitoring by the endocrinologist. These include disorders of the pituitary gland that can affect growth and disorders of the thyroid gland that can result in a variety of metabolic problems.
Some patients experience health problems as a result of the normal decline in hormones that can accompany ageing. These patients can consult with an endocrinologist to weigh the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy intended to boost their natural levels of reproductive hormones.
In addition to treating patients, endocrinologists may be involved in research to improve the understanding of endocrine system disorders and develop new treatments for these diseases.
The endocrine system consists of cells, tissues and organs that secrete hormones critical to homeostasis. The body coordinates its functions through two major types of communication: neural and endocrine. Neural communication includes both electrical and chemical signalling between neurons and target cells. Endocrine communication involves chemical signalling via the release of hormones into the extracellular fluid. From there, hormones diffuse into the bloodstream and may travel to distant body regions, where they elicit a response in target cells. Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete hormones. Many organs of the body with other primary functions—such as the heart, stomach, and kidneys—also have hormone-secreting cells.
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