16. Personal communications

In this chapter:
Personal communications
  • Personal communications may be unpublished lecture notes, letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations, email or messages from non-archived discussion groups or bulletin boards, posts or updates from social media accounts that are not publicly accessible, or photographs, images, tables or data that you created yourself.
  • Personal communications are usually non-recoverable from the reader’s perspective and are not to be included in the Reference List, but should be cited in-text as they are referred to.
  • Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.
  • Lecture notes are treated as personal communication if they are unpublished (i.e. not copied and distributed in print or on the Internet with the instructor’s permission).
  • Personal communications are not included in the list of references at the end.
  • In-text, the initials precede the Correspondent Surname

(Correspondent Initial Corr. Surname Year, pers. comm., Day Month).


(RN Ayers 1991, pers. comm., 2 July).

MK Larsen (1983, pers. comm., 1 May) said…


No entry.


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