4. Books, journal articles, newspaper articles

In this chapter  
Books Newspaper article, magazine articles
Chapter in edited books including dictionaries and encyclopedias Children’s picturebooks or other illustrated books
Journal articles

a) Print

b) Online (DOI) – if a DOI is available, always use the DOI.

c) Online (no DOI) – if you obtained access via a USQ database, treat it like a print version (no URL). Otherwise, use the URL.

d) E-book on an eReader i.e. Kindle, Nook, Sony Reader. In the reference list, do not include the format, platform or device.  The only exception to this is you include the format (i.e. Ebook) when the content differs from the book or audiobook, or if you quote from the ebook. In the source element of the reference, include the publisher name and the DOI (preference) or URL (i.e. where you downloaded the book from).

e) Musical score

f) Graded or guided readers Used in the teaching of reading. When part of a pack, each reader should be treated as an individual title. For print copies in a pack, reference as a print book. For online readers in a pack refence as a print copy however if an individual DOI for a title is available it should be included. Not all online materials will have a DOI and in this case a URL should not be used.


(Author Surname, Year)


a) Abbott (2008) states …

b) A multidisciplinary approach … (Radanovic & Mansur, 2011).

c) Film has its own conventions (Hughes-Warrington, 2007).

d) Durant and Durant (2012) discuss …

e) In Lloyd Webber’s (ca. 1970) musical …

f) Forest and Serene (2022) show…


a) Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title (Edition). Publisher.

b) Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title. Publisher Name. https://doi.org.xxx

c) Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title. Publisher Name. URL

d) Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title [Version]. Publisher. DOI/URL.

e) Composer Surname, Initial. (Year). Title. Publisher.


a) Abbott, H. P. (2008). The Cambridge introduction to narrative (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.

b) Radanovic, M., & Mansur, L. L. (2011). Language disturbances in adulthood: New advances from the neurolinguistics perspective. Bentham Books. https://doi.org/10.2174/97816080510831110101

c) Hughes-Warrington, M. (2007). History goes to the movies: Studying history on film. EPDF.PUB. https://epdf.pub/history-goes-to-the-movies-studying-history-on-film.html

d) Durant, W., & Durant, A. (2012). The lessons of history. Simon & Schuster. https://www.amazon.com.au/Lessons-History-Will-Durant-ebook/dp/B008GUIEYU

e) Lloyd Webber, A. [ca. 1970]. Jesus Christ superstar. Leeds Music.

f) Forrest, N. & Serene, M. (2022). Wet dog. Firefly Education.

f) Cutting, J. (n.d.). My Friend. Sunshine Online.


a) Print

b) Online – individual chapters may have their own DOI.

c) Article from encyclopedia


(Chapter Author Surname, Year)


a) Morgan (1999) describes …

b) Jacobs and Hall (2002) consider the task …

c) The field of adult education … (Rubenson, 2010).


Chapter Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of chapter or entry.  In Author/Editor Initial. Surname (Role abbrev.), Title of book (pp. Page Range of Chapter). Publisher. DOI/URL

OR for an encyclopedia entry

Entry title. (Year). Source Title. URL


a) Morgan, H. (1999). Nine years war.  In W. J. McCormack (Ed.), The Blackwell companion to modern Irish culture (pp. 428-430). Blackwell Publishers.

b) Jacobs, G. M., & Hall, S. (2002). Implementing cooperative learning. In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 52-58). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667190.009

c) Rubenson, K. (2010). Adult education overview.  In P. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 1-11). Elsevier.

  • Include the issue number where available.
  • If the publication does not use volume, issue or page numbers, omit this information from the reference.

a) Print journal

b) Online journal – include a doi if available. If no doi, and the article was obtained using USQ databases, treat as from a print journal. Otherwise, include URL.

c) Online journal with an article number – provide the page number/s at the end of the reference.

d) Abstract

e) Advance online publication


(Author Surname, Year).


a) Coltheart and Prior (2006) discussed …

b) Jebb and Aveyard (2019) state that…

b) MacLean (2014) states that …

c)  Conor (2018) suggests …

d) Pedder and Opfer (2010) state that …

e) Diecklemann et al. (2011) argues ….


Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume Number(Issue Number), Page Range.


a) Coltheart, M., & Prior, M. (2006). Learning to read in Australia. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11, 157-164.

b) Jebb, S. A., & Aveyard, P. (2023). “Willpower” is not enough: Time for a new approach to public health policy to prevent obesity. BMC Medicine, 21(1), 89–89. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-023-02803-z

b) MacLean, M. (2014). Truth and reality in screening sports’ pasts: Sports films, public history and truthfulness. Journal of Sport History, 41(1), 47-54.

c) Conor, L. (2018, November 6). Found: the earliest European image of Aboriginal Australians. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/found-the-earliest-european-image-of-aboriginal-australians-106176

d) Pedder, D., & Opfer, V. D. (2010). Planning and organization of teachers’ continuous professional development in schools in England [Abstract]. Curriculum Journal, 21, 433-452. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585176.2010.529652

e) Diecklemann, S., Buchel, C., Born, J., & Rasch, B. (2011). Labile or stable: Opposing consequences for memory when reactivated during waking and sleep. Nature Neuroscience. Advance online publication. http://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2744

  • If you have used an article from an online newspaper, you should only include the URL if it will work for all readers
  • For daily or weekly publications, include the day in the reference.
  • If the publication does not use volume, issue, or page numbers, omit this information from the reference.

a) Print newspaper – provide the page number/s at the end of the reference.

b) Online newspaper

c) Magazine

d) Reviews and peer commentary – identify the type of medium being reviewed in square brackets. If the details of the item being reviewed are clear from the title of the review, no additional explanatory information is needed. If the review is untitled, use the bracketed information as the title.


(Author Surname, Year)


a) Murray (2001) stated …

b) … was recently discovered … (Conor, 2018).

c) The frogs are … (Beemster, 2008).

d) Boyd (2010) reviewed Carey’s …

          Author surname, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume number (Issue number), Page range. DOI or URL 


a) Murray, E. (2001, May 9). Refugee crisis! [Letter to the editor]. Weekend Australian, A13.

b) Conor, L. (2018, November 6). Found: the earliest European image of Aboriginal Australians. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/found-the-earliest-european-image-of-aboriginal-australians-106176

c) Beemster, M. (2008, December). Saving the Southern Bell Frog. Australian Landcare, 27-29.

d) Boyd, W. (2010, July 18). Man as an island [Review of the book William Golding, by J. Carey]. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/

  • Use for books where the illustrations play an equally important part as the written text in telling the story.
  • References follow the same format for book as well as including the illustrator’s name in addition to the author’s name, as both contribute to the narrative.
  • An illustrator is not included if the book is functional (e.g. textbook) and/or decorative.
  • When there is no clear distinction between author and illustrator on the cover, refer to the imprint details.
  • When there is no clear distinction in the imprint details between the author and illustrator, treat the author and illustrator as co-creators and reference as two authors. (See Variations in authors/creators).
  • Judgement is needed to decide the purpose of illustrations and therefore if the book is referenced in this way.

a) Children’s picture book with illustrator different to author.

b) Children’s picture book with illustrator same as author.

      • When the author and illustrator are the same, credit the person twice, once as author and again as illustrator.

c) Children’s book, part of a series.

      • Do not include a number to show place in series, unless it is actually part of the title.
      • Do not include the series title in the reference.

d) Republished or anniversary edition.

      • Children’s books are often republished. If this is the case, include the year of the version you used in the main date element of the reference, and include the original year of publication at the end of the reference in parentheses.
      • Both years of publication appear in the in-text citation, separated with a slash, the earlier year first.
      • When the republication is part of an anniversary edition or other special edition, include the edition information in parentheses after the title and after information about the illustrator. Adjust the wording as needed to reflect the information on the work.

(Author Surname, Year)


a) (Germeain, 2021)

a) (Ober, 2019)

b) (Walker, 2022)

c) (Fienberg & Fienberg, 1995)

d) (Fienberg & Fienberg, 1995/2006)

e) (Sendak, 1963/2012)


Author surname, Initial. (Year). Title of work. (Illustrator’s initial, Surname, Illus.; anniversary edition number if applicable). Publisher. (Original publication date if applicable).


a) Germein, K. (2021). Bev and Kev. (M. Foot, Illus.). Little Book Press.

a) Ober, P-J., (2019). The good son. (J. Ober & F. Coonan, Illus.). Candlewick Press.

b) Walker, A. (2022). Snap! (A. Walker, Illus.). Scribble.

c) Fienberg, A. & Fienberg, B. (1995). Tashi. (K. Gamble, Illus.). Allen & Unwin.

d) Fienberg, A. & Fienberg, B. (2006). Tashi. (K. Gamble, Illus.). Allen & Unwin. (Original work published 1995).

e) Sendak, M. (2012). Where the wild things are (M. Sendak, Illus.; 50th anniversary ed.). HarperCollins Publisher. (Original work published 1963).


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