16. Personal communications

In this chapter:
Personal communications
  • Personal communications may be unpublished lecture notes, letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations, email or messages from non-archived discussion groups or bulletin boards, posts or updates from social media accounts that are not publicly accessible, or photographs, images, tables or data that you created yourself.
  • Personal communications are usually non-recoverable from the reader’s perspective and are not to be included in the Reference List, but should be cited in-text as they are referred to.
  • Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.
  • Lecture notes are treated as personal communication if they are unpublished (i.e. not copied and distributed in print or on the Internet with the instructor’s permission).

a) General

b) Photograph


(Correspondent Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)


a) O. Sorenson (personal communication, May 29, 2018)

b) (M. A. Toby, personal photograph, May 2, 1987)


No entry.


UniSQ APA 7 Referencing Guide Copyright © by University of Southern Queensland. All Rights Reserved.

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